时间:2018-05-21 合同法规 我要投稿



  按课本出现顺序 Promise 允诺 Remedy 救济

  Competent persons 有相应行为能力之当事人

  Enforceable 可(由法律)强制执行的 Agreement 协议 P1

  Parties to the contract 合同当事人 Offeror 要约人 Offer 要约

  Offeree 受要约人 Acceptance 承诺 Assurance 确诺

  Manifestation of intent 意思表示 Commitment 许诺 Promisor 允诺人 Promisee 受允诺人 Beneficiary 受益人 Consideration 约因 Benefit 利益 Detriment 损害 Advantage 利益

  Disadvantage 不利益

  Object of the contract 合同标的 Statute of Frauds 防止欺诈条例P2

  Formation 合同成立 Enforcement 强制执行 Performance 履行 Discharge 解除

  Bilateral contract 双务合同 Unilateral contract 单务合同

  A promise for a promise 以允诺换允诺

  A promise for an act 以允诺换行为 P3

  Incomplete contract 不完全履行合同 Partial performance contract 部分履行合同

  Actual contract 真实合同 Express contract 明示合同 P4 Implied-in-fact contract 默示合同/事


  实默示的合同 P5

  Quasi-contract 准合同 / implied-in-law contract 法律默示的合同

  Meeting of minds 合意 Injustice 不公正

  Unjust eichment 不当得利

  Objective theory of contract 合同客观理论

  Intent 意图

  Resonably prudent person standard 合理谨慎人的标准 In jest 开玩笑 In anger 生气

  In excitement 兴奋状态 Invalid 无效 P6 Formal contract 要式合同 Contacts under seal 盖印合同 Recognizance 具结 Acknowledge 承认

  Negotiable instruments 可转让票据 Letters of credit 信用证 Invoice 发票;发货单 Bill of lading 提单

  Informal contract 非要式合同/simple contract 简单合同 P8 Valid contract 有效合同 Void contract 无效合同

  Voidable contract 可撤销合同

  Unenforceable contract 不可强制执行的合同

  Contractual capacity 订约能力

  Nondisclosure agreement/NDA 保密协议

  Minors 未成年人

  Insane persons 精神病者 Intoxicated persons 酗酒人 Duress 胁迫

  Undue influence 不正当影响 Fraud 欺诈 P9

  Cases involving mutual mistake 双方都有误解的合同

  Contract at will 任意合同 Excuted contract/performed

  contract/completed contract 已履行/已完成的合同

  Excutory contract 待执行合同 P10

  Sources of contract law 合同法的渊源 Common law 普通法/judge-made law 法官造法

  General principle 一般法律原则

  The Uniform Commercial Code/UCC 统一商法典

  National Conference of Commission on Uniform State Law 美国统一州级法律委员会全国大会 Draft 起草(法律) Merchant 商人P11

  Restatement of the law, Second:Contracts 法律整编第二版:合同法 The American Law Institute 美国法学会

  The Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods/CISG 联合国国际货物买卖销售合同公约

  Firm offer rule 实盘规则(不可撤销要约规则)

  Mailbox rule 发信主义 Battle of forms 格式之争 Mirror image rule 镜像规则 P12

  Jurisprudential foundation 法理学基础

  Legal realism 法律现实主义 Open-ended standard 开口标准 Formalities 形式 Make whole 填平

  Electronic Signature Act 电子签章法 P13

  Electronic sound 电子声音 Electronic symbol 电子符号 Electronic process 电子程序 Preserve 保留 In writing 书面

  Laissez-faire 放任政策

  Freedom of contract 合同自由 P14


  Classical law of contracts 古典合同法理论

  Objective rules 客观规则 Certainty 确定性

  Predictability 可预见性

  Chain of distribution for goods 物流链 Form contract 标准合同

  Automobile contract 汽车买卖合同 Mortgage contract 抵押合同

  Sale contracts for consumer goods 消费品买卖合同

  Legal theories 法律原理/理论 Oppressive 强制性 Decisional law 判例法

  Small-town virtue 小城道德标准 Interest of business 商业的利益 Rural context 农村环境 Urban context 城市环境 P15 Defenses to the enforcement of a contract 对合同履行的抗辩 Trade usage 行业惯例

  Specific performance 强制履行 Expectation interest 预期利益 Reliance interest 信赖利益

  Substitute performance 替代履行 Restitution 恢复原状

  Genuineness of assent 同意的真实性 Duress 胁迫

  Undue influence 不正当影响 Fraud 欺诈 P16

  Writing and form 书面和形式问题 Equity 衡平

  Court of common law 普通法院

  Chancery court/court of equity 衡平法院

  Fairness 公平

  Moral rights道德权利 Natural law 自然法

  Doctrine of equity 衡平准则 P17

  Lawyers 法律人 Case law 判例法

  Public policy 社会公共政策 P19

  Novation (合同)更新 Liquidated damages 违约金

  Covenant of good faith 善意条款 P20

  Mutual assent 双方同意

  A reasonably prudent person 合理谨慎人 P21 Offeror 要约人 Offeree 受要约人 Promise 承诺 Accept 承诺

  Invitation to negotiate 要约邀请/谈判邀请

  Form letter 格式信函 Quote 报价

  Promissory estoppel 允诺禁反言;不得自食其言 P22

  Standard of offer 判断要约的标准 A reasonable person 合理人标准 P31

  Prevail 优先 P33 Terms of offer 要约的条件P38

  Open terms 开放条款

  Gap-filling rule 空隙填补规则 Time of performance 履行时间 P40

  Quantum meruit 按劳付酬;按合理价格支付;质量价值

  Quasi contract 准合同 P43 Communication of offer 要约的传达 Supported by consideration 有约因支持的

  Option 选择权

  Irrevocable 不可撤销的

  Firm offers 不可撤销的要约/实盘要约 P47

  Offers in auction 拍卖的要约

  Auction without reserve 无保留的拍卖

  Auction wiht reserve 有保留的拍卖 Collateral contract 附随合同;附属契约 P50

  Auction in electronic commerce 电子


  商务拍卖 P53

  Termination of offer 要约的终止 P54

  Lapse of time 逾时;期满失效 P55

  Revocation of offer 要约的撤回 P56

  Offeree’s refusal of offer 受要约人拒绝要约

  Counter-offer 反要约

  Mirror acceptance 镜像规则 P62

  Option 选择权 P64 Termination by law P65

  Terms and conditions 条款和条件 Counter-offer 反要约

  Mirror acceptance rule 镜像承诺规则 P68

  Cross offers 交叉要约 P71

  Indefiniteness 缺乏确定性;不确定性 P72

  Meeting of minds 达成合意

  Entry-into-force time of acceptance 承诺的生效时间

  Acceptance-upon-dispatch rule/mailbox rule 承诺发出主义/投邮主义 P73

  Quiet title to the land 确认土地所有权 P74

  Option contract 选择权合同 P75 Promise 允诺

  Performance 履行 P77 General contractor 总承包商 Subcontractor 次承包商 P82 Malpractice 玩忽职守;不当执业 P86

  Implied-in-fact contract 事实默示的合同 P87

  Good faith 诚信原则

  Reasonableness 合理性原则 P93

  Commercial reasonableness 商业合理性 P94



  Liquidated damage clause 预定损害赔偿条款

  Battle of the forms 格式信函之战 P95

  Gap-filling rule 空隙填补规则 Merchantability 适售性 P96

  Proposals for addition to the contract 对合同的补充建议 P97 Different terms 不同条款 Additional terms 额外条款 Merchants 商人

  Non-merchants 非商人

  Materially alter 实质性变更 Complaint 抱怨 Warranty 担保

  Merchantability 适售性 Fitness 合目的性 P98

  Impacts of E-commerce and web-laws on the forms 电子商务与网络法对格式合同的影响

  Shrink wrap license 拆封许可 P102

  Public policy 公共政策 P103 An enforceable contract 有强制力的合同

  Consideration 约因

  Inducement/incentives 诱因 Detriment 损害

  Impelling influence 强有力的影响因素

  Bargaining 讨价还价

  Legal detriment or disadvantage 法律上的损失或不利益 Quid pro quo 对价 Gift 赠与 P112

  Contract in signed writing 经签署的书面合同

  Supported by consideration 已受约因支持

  Contract under seal 盖印合同 Forbearance 忍耐/克制 P115 Sufficient consideration 充分的约因 Gift promise 赠与的允诺 P116


  Nominal consideration 名义上的约因

  Shocks the conscience of the court 震惊法庭的良心

  Adequacy of consideration 约因的适当性 P123

  Sufficiency of consideration 约因的充分性

  Nominal 有名无实的;名义上的 Equity 衡平法 P124

  Forbearance from suit 容忍不诉 Past consideration 过去的约因 Moral obligation 道德义务 P125 Quantum meruit 所提供服务之实际价值

  Good consideration 有效的约因 P126

  Moral consideration 道德约因 Legal consideration 法律约因 P131

  Pre-existing duty 既存的义务 P132

  Modification of contract 合同的修改 P135

  Sales contract 买卖合同 Termination 终止(合同) Rescission 解除(合同) Unforeseen and unanticipated circumstances 无法预料、不曾预见之情况

  Estoppel 禁反言 Waiver 弃权 P137

  Executory contract 待履行合同

  Compromising an existing claim 既存请求权的妥协

  Bona fide dispute “真实的”或“善意的争议” P139 Accord 新债清偿合同 Satisfaction 满足

  Accord and satisfaction 新债清偿合同与满足 P140

  Illusory promise 虚假允诺

  Mutuality of obligation 义务相互性 P144

  Output contract 产量合同

  Requirement contract 需求合同 P148

  Stale claims 逾时失效的请求权 The statue of limitations 诉讼时效 Discharge in bankruptcy 破产免责 New consideration 新约因 P150 Forbearance from suit 隐忍不诉

  Abstention from legal conduct 合法行为的节制

  Detriment 利益损失 P152 A bona fide suit 善意诉讼

  Sufficient consideration 充分的约因 P153

  Aleatory promise 不确定/偶然性的承诺

  Promissory estoppel 允诺性禁反言 P158

  Injustice 不公正 Remedies 救济

  Unjust eichment 不当得利 P159

  Parol evidence rule 口头证据法则 Terms and conditions 条款和条件 Parol 口头的 In writing 书面的

  Extrinsic evidence 外在证据 P174

  Integration 整合

  Final and complete 最终且完整的 Partial integration 部分整合

  Final but not complete 最终但不完全 Prior writings and oral agreement 事前的书面和口头协议

  Contemporaneous writing 同时书面 Subsequent agreements 事后协议 No oral modification clause 禁止头变更条款 P175

  Reliability of writings 书面的可靠性 A principle of substance 实体法律原则 P176

  Procedural substantive 程序的实体性 Diversity jurisdiction 区分管辖权 P177

  Final and complete writings 最终且完



  The statute of frauds 防止欺诈条例 Memorandum 备忘录 P197 Partial integrated 部分整合 Total integrated 完全整合

  Additional prior non-contradictory parol terms 协议订立前的非抵触性的其他口头条件

  Informality 不规范;非正式

  Completely integrated writing 完全整合的书面

  Fully integrated/completed 完全整合的

  Form approach 形式的方法 P198 The face of the contract 合同的表面 Extrinsic evidence 外来证据 Intrinsic evidence 内在证据 Merger clause 归并条款

  Verbal understandings 口头谅解书 P199

  Implied terms (合同的)默示条款 Separate consideration 独立的约因 Separate agreement 分别的协议 P202

  Substituting or contradicting terms 替代或变更原有条款

  Express language 明示语言 P220 Extra or additional terms 额外或附属条款

  Side or collateral agreement 额外或附属协议

  Merger clause 归并条款

  Separate consideration 独立的约因 P221

  Ambiguity/ambiguities 含混不清之处 Latent 隐性的/ 潜在的 Patent 显性的 P222

  Terms based on custom 依据惯例确立的合同条款

  Course of dealing 交易过程

  Custom and usage of the trade 行业惯例

  Prior negotiations 订约前协商

  Antecedent understanding 签约前协



  在解决当事人的缔约能力时,法律关注的是在两种基本的利益之间实现一种平衡:即一方面对缺乏缔约能力的当事人给予特殊的保护;另一方面,对另一方当事人的期待权益、依赖权益和恢复原状的权益也要给予适当的保护。关于未成年人订立的合同,英美法中的一个重要的原则是:一个未成年人在成年之前所作的放弃其撤销合同的权利的表示是无效的。但是根据义务互惠原则(the principle of mutuality of obligation ),合同一方要对方对自己承担义务,自己也要承担对应的义务;要使对方依合同承担风险,自己也要承担相应的风险。因此,未成年人在成年之后应该立即就确认还是否认合同作出选择。当已经订立的合同被宣告无效或经一方的请求而被撤消时,了结双方当事人债权债务关系的一般原则就是令双方返还利益,即让他们在经济上恢复到合同订立前的状态。在认定有精神缺陷者的缔约能力时,传统的检验标准是所谓的认识(cognitive)标准,即当事人是否有能力理解该有争议的交易的性质和后果。






  The common law and civil law of contract in the understanding of the walk on two different road, in the civil law, as the cause of the debt contract exists, based on this concept, or is it based on this theory abstract, continental law of civil law system will contract and infringement, uncaused management, undeserved benefit and communication up; And in the common law, just have legal force contract between the parties with the relation of mutual commitment just.

  In medieval England, not what the contract in concept, litigation premise is to obtain a writ writ contains specific can accuse the cause of the event is fixed, the legal procedure and relief method, making it "order" can't be outside of the lawsuit, which of course can't meet the needs of economic development, so need to continue development system of writs, so have the exception, again later, wax seal the written can accuse, again later, lending debt can accuse, then, for fulfillment of obligations by the north to the damage caused by the people become can accuse, then, to the parties have become dependent on the promise can accusing.

  In the common law, contract law is available for relief promise. A series of the starting point of the obligations promise, the parties to make the promise (of course to meet some of the conditions, including the certainty that get commitment right (this commitment right is, once the effectiveness of an offer is accepted, produce the binding), this commitment right for each other's can be rejected or no response (such as a reward for advertising) and terminated, but once accepted, the parties that is constrained. In civil law, contract relationship is a kind of rights and obligations, the default is actually a violation of the obligations under this contract. But, in Anglo-American law, the default is violation of his promise.



  不正当影响普遍存在于订立合同的过程中滥用特殊关系以从中谋取利益。施加这种影响的人,通常具有以下情形:一是利用自己的被信任地位,二是利用对方的薄弱意志,三是利用对方在某方面知识的缺乏,四是利用对方精神上的痛苦。通过这些情形影响对方当事人进行自主的抉择,最终迫使对方与自己签订合同。这种影响虽然没有完全摧毁对方的自由真实表示,但却压制了对方的真实表示,使之产生了一定程度的偏向。在此情形下,当事人所表达出来的意思就偏离了其内心的真实意思,形成了有瑕疵的意思表示。 如果这类合同有不公正的地方或履行起来有困难,即可推定为有”不正当影响”,蒙受不利的一方可以主张撤销合同。